Risk Adjusted Loan Pricing – From Profit to Profitability

By: Tom Hannagan

Part 2

Return on Equity (ROE)
ROE is the risk-adjusted profit divided by the equity amount associated with the loan in question.

ROE =      Risk-adjusted profit
Equity amount of the loan

There are two large advantages to using ROE. One, you can use it to compare profit performance across asset-based and non-asset-based products. This can’t be done with ROA – if there’s no “A”, you can’t create the ratio. This seems to be a crucial consideration if you are serious about cross-selling non-asset-based products (such as deposits and a long list of non-credit financial services) and if you are serious about being a truly client relationship oriented organization.

Second, by using ROE you have the possibility of risk-adjusting the amount of equity used in the denominator of the calculation.  Adjusting the equity amount based on risk, in a credible manner, creates risk-adjusted ROE, or what is referred to as risk adjusted return on capital (RAROC). The equity amount applied to the loan represents all of the remaining risk or unexpected loss (UL).instance that we did not account for in the steps that got us to the risk-adjusted profit result. RAROC, or risk-adjusted ROE, is a fully risk-adjusted representation of relative value. This level of risk-based performance measurement also has the advantage of relating pricing and relationship management activities to the bank’scapital management process.

So far, we have covered several of the key parts of how risk-based pricing can work. In doing so, we have discussed how the various elements involved in pricing relate to the bank’s books and policies. The loan balance, rate and fee data relates to the banks actual general ledger amounts. The administrative costs are also derived from actual non-interest expenses. The cost of funds is aligned with the policies used in ALSO and in IRR management processes. The cost of credit risk is related to the bank’s credit and provisioning policies. The taxes are the bank’s actual average experience. And, for banks using ROE/RAROC, the equity allocation is related to the bank’s overall risk posture and its capital sufficiency policies.

I stated earlier that “Risk-based pricing analysis is a product-level microcosm of risk-based bank performance”. It is that and more. In addition to pricing’s linkage to financial figures and results, risk-based pricing should also be a reflection of the bank’s most critical risk management policies and governance processes.